The State of Seniors in our Society is Troubling

alzheimer-and-dementia

This is why IPS Safety was conceived, and why we are successful. Many thanks to Jeevin Bains for this compilation:

A Strained 911 System and Threats to Public Health – Reference: Cannucio et Al, 2015
– Firefighters express concern that responding to non-urgent 911 calls diverts resources
to the right people who need help.
– A firefighter estimated that 90 % of the calls they have got are not true emergencies
– Sometimes callers use a ‘magic word’ such as chest pain to get more attention when
not needed
– “A consistent portrait emerged of a system strained by the otherwise unmet needs of
our community residents, especially those who are elderly and poor, for whom calling
9-1- 1 is often the only path to obtaining much-needed immediate assistance”
– “As firefighters in this and other studies have noted, the challenges of our country’s
poor and elderly citizens are not met by other existing safety nets”

Abuse of Older People – Reference: Andrews, 2017
– About one in ten seniors experience abuse each month
– “Professionals and organizations are required work together to reduce risk, and to stop
any incidents of abuse or neglect”
– “A person with dementia may be at considerable risk because they are not listened to or
they are regarded as an unreliable witness”
– Nurses need to take an active approach is determining where there is elder abuse

All Eyes are on Granny Cams – Reference: Edwards, 2000
– Two-way communication is possible with granny cams
– Granny cams can ensure the safety and security of residents
– Family members can monitor their loved one in a facility with Granny Cams
– Granny Cams are a valuable tool for those who don’t always see their loved one, but
suspect neglect or abuse.
– Granny cams in rooms don’t capture abuse in bathrooms and hallways in facilities
– Even one person who uses a granny cam in a facility can reveal other abuse that
happens to others
– Irvine Cottages, an Alzheimer’s assisted living center in Irvine California, was one of the
first assisted living centers to use Granny Cams. Families loved that Granny cams were
installed. It documented many cases of abuse, and on one instance a nurse got fired for
hitting a patient with a jacket, and on another instance, a nurse was fired for hitting a
resident on the hand.

A two-question tool to assess the risk of repeated falls in the elderly
Reference: Moinero et al, 2017
– “Approximately 10% of the older population experience repeated falls in one year
with the consequent health risks”
– Patients can tend to forget if they fall based on memory bias, so sometimes they are
not aware that they experience falls.
– This study completed by Molinero et al concluded that 9.9 % of the elderly had multiple
falls during a one-year period
– “It was clear that subjects, who believed that they were at risk of falling, experienced
more falls than others”
– “The results of this study showed, however, that older adults’ self-estimation of their
own risk of fall had a strong predictive value for the incidence of subsequent falls”
– “In addition, falls are related to fragility syndrome, which is a lack of functional
reserve, predisposing to adverse health events such as falls, functional deterioration
of death”

Development Of A Low False-Alarm- Rate Fall-Down Detection System Based On Machine Learning For Senior Health Care  – Reference: Sui, 2015
– “Fatal delay in medical treatment caused by unconsciousness after seniors’ fall-down
results in thousands of deaths each year in the US”
– “In conclusion, the low false-alarm- rate fall-down detection system with an inertial
measurement unit (IMU) and a microcontroller embedded with machine learning
algorithm has been successfully developed and characterized in this work, and the
developed system can be greatly helpful for the health care of senior fall-down”

Elder Self-Neglect  – Reference: Dong, 2017
– “Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threaten older
people’s health and safety.”
– “It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in
areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety
precautions.”
– Elder self-neglect affects millions of older people each year
– “In US, self-neglect has been the primary type (41.9%) of elder abuse (EA) cases
reported to the Adult Protective Services (APS)”
– “It is evident that self-neglect is associated with adverse outcomes concerned to older
people’s physical and psychological well-being, mortality, and health care utilization”       – “Studies found that people with fewer economic resources are more likely to
experience self-neglect”
– Physical Disability, Impairment, and psychological distress also are contributing factors
to self-neglect
– “Evidence has shown that self-neglect is associated with higher levels of cognitive and
physical impairments and self-neglecting older adults are more likely to
experience nutritional deficiency and medical non-adherence”
– “Studies of the CHAP cohort found that self-neglect is associated with a significantly
increased risk of 1-year mortality”
– “Researchers and health care providers should prioritize addressing barriers in the
detection of self-neglect in order to help millions of underserved self-neglect victims”

Cameras can be used to see and hear Seniors when we’re not there – constant surveillance through smartphones.

Granny Cams Keep an Eye on Care – Reference: Reutter, 2004
– “And an estimated 1 in 20 elderly nursing home residents experiences some form of
abuse, according to the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration”
“Three out of every ten nursing homes have been cited for potential life-threatening
deficiencies in care”
– Advocates for Granny Cams argue that they are the best way to prevent and expose
abuse

Patient Safety Culture in Norwegian Nursing Homes Reference: Bondekvik et. al 2017
– “Nursing home patients are at high risk of adverse events. These individuals are
particularly vulnerable due to their age, cognitive impairment, complex multiple
diseases, and nonspecific presentation of illnesses”

Development of an automated speech recognition interface for personal emergency
response systems – Reference: Hamill et al, 2009
– “Aging-in- place (i.e. aging at home) is the desire of most seniors and is also a good
option to reduce the burden on an overstretched long-term- care system.”
Personal Emergency Response Systems (PERS) help provide seniors with immediate
access to emergency assistance in these instances
– “Falls are one of the leading causes of hospitalization and institutionalization among
older adults 75 years of age and older”
– “Studies estimate that one in every three older adults over the age of 65 will
experience a fall over the course of a year”                                                                                    – Aging-at- home is ideal for the senior citizen
– “Personal emergency response systems (PERSs) have been shown to increase feelings
of security, enable more seniors to age-in- place, and reduce overall healthcare costs”

Persons with dementia missing in the community: Is it wandering or something unique
Reference: Rowe et al, 2011
– “At some point in the disease process, many persons with dementia (PWD) will have a
missing incident and be unable to safely return to their care setting”
– “The risk of missing incidents is significant and the Alzheimer’s Association estimates
that up to 60 percent of PWD will ‘wander’ into the community at some point during
the course of their disease”
– “While most of these individuals will be found alive and unharmed, some of them will
die from exposure, drown, or suffer injuries or fatalities after being involved in a car
accident as either a driver or a pedestrian.”
Thirty percent of persons who wondered having dementia were found dead in this
research study
– “Locating and tracking interventions can be considered”
– “These would be most important for those at high risk of a missing incident, for instance, males with high levels of independent activity in the community. Locating technologies, such as radio-frequency technologies that can find an individual in buildings, under tree cover, etc., are engaged once the individual is determined to be missing. Radio frequency identification locator systems are an example of this technology and can be ordered through local law enforcement agencies who have obtained the equipment. Tracking strategies use a combination of satellite and cellular signals to track the general location of an individual at any given time, similar to using a GPS system in a car”
– Locating technologies would be the preferred technology if the goal was to find a lost
PWD”

Outdoor Cameras can assist in tracking Seniors who wander.

Physical Abuse of Elderly Adults – Reference: Friedman et al, 2017
– 8.3 out of 1000 adults over 60 are faced with some form of elder mistreatment
– Communities have reported higher rates ranging from 1-5% prevalence of elder abuse
– Studies have shown even after intervention of elder abuse, anywhere from 14-42% of
the elderly will get abused after
– Little can be discovered about those who abuse seniors
– More than 50% of the adults in this study, of those who experienced ABUSE, had
repeated ongoing ABUSE
“It is difficult for the authorities to compel the victim to seek services, change
residences, or seek legal action against the perpetrator”

Global Prevalence of Elder Abuse: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
Reference: Wong et al, 2017

– “According to the WHO, the prevalence of elder abuse varies widely from 1% to 35%”
– “Based on previous studies, an estimated 1 to 2 million older adults in the US have
been abused and this number is expected to increase when the global aging
population expands to nearly 2 billion in 2050”
– “Elder abuse is a pertinent social problem that affects one of the most vulnerable
groups of citizens significantly threatens the human dignity of older people and limits
their ability to lead a fulfilling life”
– “Bond and Butler reported that 1 in 5 to 1 in 14 cases of elder abuse go unreported”
Study Conclusion: “Third parties or caregivers tend to report a higher prevalence of
elder abuse than older abused adults”
– “From this study, it is evident that elder abuse is a serious global problem that needs
to be addressed at both society and government levels”

An Unobtrusive Fall Detection and Alerting System Based on Kalman Filter and Bayes Network
Classifier Reference: Bai et al, 2017
– “Besides physical injuries, the fear of falling is developing among the elderly, which
greatly reduces their confidence in living independently and participating energetically
in social activities, ultimately resulting in significant reductions in the quality of their
lives and contributing to an increase in reality due to this reduction of activity level”
– 3% of all fallers are estimated to live 20 minutes without any support

Wandering due to Dementia – Reference: Luther et al, 2015
– “The main findings of our study reveals that community-living persons with mild
dementia who displayed persistent walking behavior are 2.6 times more likely to
experience negative outcomes of wandering and 13 times more likely to elope than
those who did not display persistent walking behavior”
– Wandering behavior in persons with dementia results in negative consequences and
places them at high risk

A review of wearable sensors and systems with application in rehabilitation
– Reference: Patel et al, 2012

– “Remote monitoring systems have the potential to mitigate problematic patient access
issues.”
– “Monitoring activities performed by older adults and individuals with chronic conditions participating in “aging in place” programs have been considered a matter of paramount importance”
– “Reliable detection of falls via wearable sensors has been achieved by many research
groups.”
– “Even though the wrist is a challenging sensor location to detect a fall event,
researchers on the project achieved 90% sensitivity and 97% specificity in the
detection of simulated falls.”
– “Besides, when monitoring has been performed in the home, researcher, and clinicians
have integrated ambient sensors in the remote monitoring systems.”

See SmartSafetyNow.com    for some of the IPS Safety solutions to the above.

Robin Elliott

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Author: robinjelliott

Marketing Director, AdXperts.com International entrepreneur since 1987 Author of 15 books robin@leverageadvantage.com Personal website: LeverageAdvantage.com My other Blog is RobinJElliott.com Ask me about an excellent business opportunity.

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